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    On the basis of time, research may either be in the nature of one-time or longitudinal time series research. While the research is restricted to a single time-period in the former case, it is conducted over several time-periods in the latter case. Depending upon the environment in which the research is to be conducted, it can also be laboratory research or field-setting research, or simulation research, besides being diagnostic or clinical in nature. Under such research, in-depth approaches or case study method may be employed to analyse the basic causal relations. These studies usually undertake a detailed in-depth analysis of the causes of certain events of interest, and use very small samples and sharp data collection methods. The research may also be explanatory in nature. Formalized research studies consist of substantial structure and specific hypotheses to be verified. As regards to historical research, sources like historical documents, remains, etc. Are utilized to study past events or ideas. It also includes philosophy of persons and groups of the past or any remote point of time. Research has also been classified into decision-oriented and conclusion-oriented categories. The decision-oriented research is always carried out as per the need of a decision maker and hence, the researcher has no freedom to conduct the research according to his/her own desires. On the other hand, in the case of Conclusion-oriented research, the researcher is free to choose the problem, redesign the enquiry as it progresses and even change conceptualization as he/she wishes to. Operations research is a kind of decision-oriented research, where in scientific method is used in providing the departments, a quantitative basis for decision-making with respect to the activities under their purview.