Words in the preamble of the indian constitution
The Preamble proclaims that India is a Sovereign State. 'Sovereign' means that India has its own independent authority and it is not a dominion or dependent state of any other external power. The Legislature of India has the powers to enact laws in the country subject to certain limitations imposed by the Constitution.
The word 'Socialist' was added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976. Socialism means the achievement of socialist ends through democratic means. India has adopted 'Democratic Socialism'. Democratic Socialism holds faith in a mixed economy where both private and public sectors co-exist side by side. It aims to end poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity.
The word 'Secular' was incorporated in the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976. The term secular in the Constitution of India means that all the religions in India get equal respect, protection and support from the state. Articles 25 to 28 in Part III of the Constitution guarantee Freedom of Religion as a Fundamental Right.
The term Democratic indicates that the Constitution has established a form of government which gets its authority from the will of the people expressed in an election. The Preamble resolves India to be a democratic country. That means, the supreme power lies with the people. In the Preamble, the term democracy is used for political, economic and social democracy. The responsible representative government, universal adult franchise, one vote one value, independent judiciary etc. are the features of Indian democracy.
In a Republic, the head of the state is elected by the people directly or indirectly. In India, the President is the head of the state. The President of India is elected indirectly by the people; that means, through their representatives in the Parliament and the State Assemblies. Moreover, in a republic, the political sovereignty is vested in the people rather than a monarch.